Larangan Riba Dalam Islam



Umat islam dilarang mengambil riba apapun jenisnya. Larangan ini supaya umat islam tidak melibatkan diri dengan riba bersumber dari berbagai surat dalam al-Qur’an dan hadis Rasulullah SAW. Dan tidak ada perbedaan pendapat di kalangan ulama mengenai keharamanya, sebab hal ini telah ditetapkan berdasarkan nash al-quran dan sunnah Rasulullah SAW, kaum muslimin, termasuk madzhab yang empat. Larangan riba yang terdapat dalam al quran tidak diturunkan sekaligus melainkan diturunkan dalam empat tahap.
Tahap pertama, menolak anggapan bahwa pinjaman riba yang pada zahirnya seolah-olah menolong mereka yang memerlukan sebagai suatu perbuatan mendekati atau taqqoruf kepada allah SWT. Itu di dalam surah AR-RUUM ayat 39.
Tahap kedua riba digambarkan sebagai sesuatu yang buruk. Allah SWT mengancam akan memberi balasan yang keras kepada orang yahudi yang memakan riba. Itu di dalam surah an-nisaa ayat 160-161.
Tahap ketiga, riba di haramkan dengan dikaitkan kepada suatu tambahan yang berlipat ganda. Para ahli tafsir berpendapat bahwa pengambilan bunga dengan tingkat yang cukup tinggi merupan fenomena yang banya dipraktikan pada masa tersebut. Allah berfirma dalam surah ALI-IMRAN ayat 130.
Tahap keempat, Allah SWT dengan jelas dan tegas mengharamkan apapun jenis tambahan yang diambil dari pinjaman. Ini adalah ayat terakhir yang diturunkan menyangkut riba. Dalam surah AL-BAQARAH ayat 278-279.
Larangan riba dalam hadis
Pelarang riba dalam islam tidak hanya merujuk pada al qur’an melainkan juga al hadis. Hal ini sebagaimana posisi umum hadis yang berfungsi untuk menjelaskan lebih lanjut aturan yang tel;ah digariskan melalui al qur’an pelarang riba dalam hadis lebih terperinci. Dalam amanatnya pada tanggal 9 dzulhijjah tahun 10 hijriah, rasuluallah saw. Masih menekankan sikap islam yang melarang riba.
“ingatlah bahwa kamu akan memghadap tuhanmu dan dia pasti akan menghitung amalmu. Allah telah melarang kamu mengambil riba. Oleh karena itu, modal (uang pokok) kamu adalah hak kamu. Kamu tudak akan menderita ataupun mengalami ketidakadilan.

Secara garis besar, riba dikelompokan menkadi 2 (dua) masing-masing adalah riba utang piutang dan riba jual-beli. Kelompok pertama terbagi lagi menjadi riba qardh dan riba jahiliyyah. Adapun kelompok kedua, riba jual-beli, terbagi menjadi riba fadhl dan riba nasi’ah.
1) Riba Qardh
Adalah praktek riba dengan cara meminjamkan uang kepada seseorang dengan syarat ada kelebihan atau keuntungan bagi pemberi utang.
2) Riba Jahiliyyah
Adalah utang di bayar lebih dari pokoknya karena sipeminjam tidak mampu membayar ytangnya pada waktu yang telah ditentukan
3) Riba Fadhl
Adalah pertukaran antar barang sejenis dengan kadar atau takaran yang berbeda, sedangkan barang yang dipertukarkan itu termasuk dalam jenis barang ribawi.
4) Riba Nasi’ah
Adalah penangguhan penyerahan atau penerimaan barang ribawi yang di pertukarkan dengan jenis barang ribawi lainya. Riba dalam nasi’ah muncul karena adanya perbedaan, perubahan, atau tambahan antara yang diserahkan saat ini dan yang diserahkan kemudian.
Mengenai pembagian dan jenis-jenis riba, berkata imam ibnu hajar al-Haitsami “bahwa riba itu terdiri dari tiga jenis yaitu riba fadhl, riba yaad, dan riba nasi’ah. Al-muttawally menambahkan jenis keempat yaitu riba qardh. Beliau juga menyatakan bahwa semua jenis ini diharamkan secara ijma berdasarkan nash Al-Qur’an dan Hadis Nabi.

Anda membaca artikel Larangan Riba Dalam Islam dan anda bisa menemukan Anchor Text artikel dengan url http://bloggerumy.blogspot.com/2010/12/larangan-riba-dalam-islam.html.


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